Tuesday, 16 February 2010

Tutoring NEETs: a multifaceted approach to affect change based on trust

Course: BA Professional Studies in Education

Module: Tutoring Guidance and Counselling

Title: Tutoring NEETs: a multifaceted approach to affect change based on trust


Ø  Is there a problem?                                                                                                           

Ø  NEETs: learner characteristics of the tutorial group                                                   

Ø  Tutorials: the role, responsibilities and constraints of a personal tutor           

Ø  Mentoring NEETs: mutual respect and self-esteem                                               

Ø  A way forward                                                                                                           


Is there a problem?

‘…most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.’

(Bandura, 1977:22)

Sir Alan Steer, a government-appointed expert on behaviour, firmly places the onus on educators to implement strategies to shape the interpersonal skills of future generations (DCSF:2009a and DCSF:2009b). Where this was once considered the role of the parent, the responsibility has sadly shifted to that of the educator and service provider.

In Layard and Dunn’s report on childhood for the Children’s Society, they believe this is a result of ‘excessive individualism’, where the ‘prime duty of the individual is to make the most of his/her own life, rather than to contribute to the good of others’ (Layard and Dunn, 2009). The dichotomic act of balancing individualism with social responsibility (Etzioni,1995:1-2), together with the attrition of other-centeredness in this age of ‘high modernity’ (Bekerman et al, 2006:169-173) and self-absorbed attitude of adults today has had a devastating effect on the emotional development of many of our young people today. Mearns and Thorne are similarly of the opinion that we live in a society which has elements within it that seem ‘increasingly bent on creating an environment which is conducive to the destruction of persons rather than to their fulfilment, to the fracturing of community rather than to its enhancement’ (Mearns and Thorne, 2000:2)

In a report commissioned by the United Nations Children’s Fund that looked at how children are faring in all twenty-one of the world’s richest countries, Britain came bottom (UNICEF, 2007:2). The acute need to address the social problems in society today has perhaps shaped the role and responsibilities of the personal tutor to that of counsellor and role model as well.


NEETs: learner characteristics of the tutorial group           

‘At the end of 2006, 454,600 young people between the ages of 16 and 18 were classified as not being in any form of education and training (NET), with 206,200 of these classified as NEET (not in education, employment or training).’

(National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER), 2008)

As a lecturer of Employability and Personal Development (E&PD) and Functional Skills in Literacy to former NEETs,[1] in an institute of Further Education, I am also required to act as personal tutor to Entry to Employment (e2e) students on a construction course. The e2e programme began in England in the summer of 2003, and was primarily aimed at young people aged sixteen to eighteen who had not participated in any form of education, employment or training for some time. Students are required to participate in a programme designed to respond flexibly to meet their individual needs, which aims to develop basic skills, key skills, inter-personal skills, vocational knowledge in a chosen area, employability skills, citizenship knowledge and awareness of equality and diversity.

The financial implication for this institute, as an e2e provider, is that all learners complete the programme, achieve a level one qualification and sustain progression to further training or employment for at least four weeks. In Swift, Conalty and Rees’s report ‘Towards Zero NEETs’ they state: ‘approximately 60% of young people NEET have not yet achieved levels 1 or 2.’ (Swift et al, 2009:4)

NEET students often arrive with multiple complex needs. Bad prior learning experiences, educational gaps, exclusion, or time in a pupil referral unit are just some of the events/circumstances that contribute toward learner disengagement. Many live independently or are in care as a result of a dysfunctional family: others have suffered sexual abuse or who are self-harmers for a number of reasons. With recent statistics showing that ninety-four percent of women who gave birth under the age of twenty were not married (National Statistics, 2009): some are young mums or mums to be. ‘Teenage conceptions tend to be both a symptom and a cause of social inequality. They can become a cycle of deprivation’ (93 Population Trends, 1998:19). Other issues are students who are of no fixed abode; too old for care and too young to be housed. Many have mental health issues and many have been put forward for counselling.

Whilst the above could be true of many learner groups, particularly in city areas, it is a common feature of e2e students at this institute. Layard and Dunn found that: 

‘…on average, 50 per cent more children with separated parents have problems that those whose parents have not separated. This is true of a wide range of outcomes: academic achievement, self-esteem, and popularity with peers, behavioural difficulties, anxiety and depression’.

(Layard and Dunn, 2009:23)

In regard to this researcher’s tutorial group: only 23% live with both parents, 11% live with their father, 11% live independently, 55% live with their mother. Of the later two groups only two have any contact with their father, which is minimal.

‘As a result of increased break-up, a third of our sixteen-year-olds now live apart from their biological father.’

(Layard and Dunn, 2009:27)

Of the whole group: 66% of students have been in trouble with the police: of which two were involved in a very serious offence, 33% have been in a PRU[2], 55% are known cannabis users. 11% have suffered medical complications since birth, 55% have suspected dyslexia and all have emotional behavioural difficulties.

A common characteristic of all individuals in this group is feeling of low self-worth: 89% have no relationship with a positive male role model.


Tutorials: the role, responsibilities and constraints of a personal tutor

‘The pursuit of personal success relative to others cannot create a happy society, since one person’s success necessarily involves another’s failure.’

(Layard and Dunn, 2009:6)

Miller outlines four significant stages of formal learning for the student and identifies ‘sixteen specific tasks which the tutor may need to perform, including counselling, teaching and disciplining.’  The outcomes of which can either ‘lead to the enhancement of motivation and commitment to learning’ or ‘inhibit student learning and personal involvement’, depending on the approach taken by the tutor (Miller in Atkinson and Chandler, 2001:1). Chickering and Gamson state:

‘Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback: knowing what you know and don’t know focuses learner. Students need appropariate feedback on performance to benefit from courses.’

(Chickering and Gamson, 1987:online)

The time allowed for personal tutors to perform all these tasks for each individual within this researcher’s institute is thirty minutes per term (Croydon College, Undated:2). These one-to-one tutorials are to ‘take place within weekly tutorials where 1.5 hours are allocated for group activities and 0.5 for individual mentoring.’ However, ‘depending on the needs of the programme and its learners’ (ibid:3), a tutorial can be dedicated solely to individual tutorials. Personal tutors are also required to implement the institute’s cross-college tutorial syllabus: designed to address issues such as citizenship, respect for all, as well as equality and diversity.

A personal tutor of e2e students has a statutory requirement to conduct four-weekly interviews with each to review their progress and enter that information into an e2e passport[3]. The structure of tutorial provision given therefore, is reflective: a journey in which the student considers his or her own participation, commitment and attitude toward the e2e programme. It is a process that can help ‘optimise learning’ (Kolb in Reece and Walker, 2003:406-407) and ‘encourages emancipation’ through ‘empowerment’. In essence, it is a ‘holistic’ model using a ‘person-centred’ approach. Moon States:

‘…looking back in a critical way at what has occurred and using the results of this process…to tackle new situations.’

(Moon, 1999:59)

Once a student has reviewed and discussed his progress SMART[4] targets are set. This is a ‘behaviourist approach’ using Skinner’s ‘positive reinforcement’ to ‘alter dysfunctional behaviour,’ (Skinner in Curzon, 2003:70-79) which is dependent on the learner’s ‘readiness’ as explained by Thorndike (Thorndike in Curzon, 2003:46-48). Hough explains that:

‘Counsellors also use this approach in various models of counselling, since empathy, warmth, genuineness, praise, attention and listening, can all be viewed as methods of reinforcement.’

(Hough, 2002:167)

This type of tutorial is what Atkinson and Chandler describe as the ‘learning development model’ with its focus on:

‘…the relationship between tutor and student, which is less that of ‘manager and managed and more that of partners in the learning process.’

(Atkinson and Chandler, 2001:26)

It is also a tutorial model which:

‘…guides and supports students to become more effective and autonomous as learners.’

(FEDA[5], 1995:15-16)

Miller highlights other factors that influence the usefulness of tutorial support: the ‘personal values’ of the institutional management and that of the tutor, as well as the effectiveness of communication between all ‘parties’ involved in the learning process of the individual (Miller in Atkinson and Chandler, 2001:3-14). For tutors of e2e learners this often means liaising with external agencies.

Personal tutors are required to be aware of, and sensitive to, the cultural needs of individuals. Any disabilities or additional learning need must be provided for to allow equal access. Additionally, tutors must observe strict control measures when handling the personal information of students’ and ensure that they comply with the 1998 Data protection Act 1998. This is extremely important when working with e2e students: some of which are very vulnerable due to their personal circumstances. This means tutors must also be aware of the 1989 Children Act and this institutes Policies for Safeguarding Children and Young People, which is a statutory responsibility for this institute under section 175 of the Education Act 2002 (Croydon College, 2009).

Personal tutors need therefore a specific skills base: they need to have an accolade of knowledge and scope of understanding if they are to perform Miller’s (1982) ‘sixteen specific tasks’. But many may feel their own skills base is inadequate to meet the demands of being a negotiator, advocate, disciplinarian, administrator and counsellor. Mearns and Thorne suggest that many people today:

‘…have fallen victim to the uncontrollable pressures of a society in transition where change is often so rapid and bewildering that the individual can no longer find a sure reference point and where the escalating demands for enhanced performance both at work and in the home engender feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness or induce degrees of mental, emotional and physical exhaustion which ultimately become insupportable.’

(Mearns and Thorne, 2000:2)

The latter role of counsellor is a contentious one, as most personal tutors will not have any counselling qualifications or appropriate training to give effective support. Yet for those who work with former NEETs the challenge of dealing with very emotive issues of different individuals is a weekly, and at times, a daily occurrence that has to be handled carefully. It is often an emotionally draining and protracted process: liaising with external services, making internal referrals as well as documenting every aspect of the incident. Without the appropriate training, a personal tutor could put himself or herself or a student at further risk. Moreover, and specifically with e2e students, a personal tutor needs, as Atkinson and Chandler (2001) suggest:

‘The ability to draw such inferences accurately has been called ‘listening with a third ear’. This implies that such nuances of meaning are just not ‘heard’ but are picked up by a mixture of the senses, including, very importantly, ‘gut reaction’.

(Atkinson and Chandler, 2001:93)

Clearly the role of a personal tutor is a time-laden one with a heavy workload and one that has to work concurrently with the lecturer’s normal curriculum timetable, together with the administrative tasks necessary to keep up-to-date with CPD,[6] lesson preparation, marking, assessment, tracking and communication with all the actors involved in curriculum provision, both externally and cross-college. In September 2005, teachers were guaranteed a minimum of ten percent of their teaching time for planning, preparation and assessment (PPA) (DfES 2004). For a thirty-five hour week this would mean three-and-a-half hours set aside to complete all the tasks outlined above.

PPA however, is often spread throughout a teacher’s weekly timetable in half-hour slots, therefore making its purpose ineffective. In a recent research by Barmby (2009) at Durham University, he found that many qualified teachers were leaving the teaching profession:

‘The reasons given in their study of teachers leaving the profession were issues with school management, hours worked and pupil behaviour, followed by lack of promotion prospects, school resources, too many responsibilities and pay.’

(Barmby, 2009:5-6) 

Those who have ever worked with NEETs will know how challenging and as the same time vulnerable they are as a group. As individuals they are identified as the most difficult to reach, yet at the same time working with them provides the most rewarding of experiences for the teacher. The amount of teenagers classified as NEET continues to grow yearly and as a learner group they are in much need of appropriate guidance and counselling. 


Mentoring NEETs: building mutual respect, trust and self-esteem

“Responsibilities and expectations are the basis of guilt and shame and judgment, and they provide the essential framework that promotes performance as the basis for identity and value. You know well what it is like not to live up to someone’s expectations.”                                         

YOUNG, W.P., (2007:206) The Shack, CA: Windblown Media

When considering the role of a personal tutor Miller (1982) proposes that there are three ‘core conditions’ that should be characteristic in the provision tutorial support: ‘acceptance/respect, appreciation/empathy and authenticity/ genuineness’ (Miller in Atkinson and Chandler, 2001:3-14): and now there is a forth, that of a ‘role model’ (Steer, DCSF: 2009a and DCSF: 2009b). The environment in which tutorials take place, together with the understanding and self-perception of both tutor and student alike, influences these ‘core conditions’: success is also shaped by the ‘personalities’ and ‘beliefs’ of both. It is this researcher’s personal belief, that for tutorial support to be of true worth, the mentor needs to have a good understanding and insight of the mentee’s personal circumstances as well as the mentee’s own perception of themselves. This should also be applied to the mentor: personal experiences shape knowledge and understanding: they are influences that should be considered when giving guidance. It is in the opinion of this researcher, that this is only achievable if the mentor has a good grasp of relevant theories and has also had an opportunity to practice learnt skills, which are further honed through professional and personal development and regular reflective self-assessment.

This researcher is interested in the reasons behind the low self-esteem of NEET learners within the e2e tutorial group and how it manifests itself in different behavioural ways. Especially in those who have little of no contact with their father: some of whom were socially withdrawn at the beginning of the programme: easily irritated, sleepy with little eye contact or motivation and in this researcher’s opinion depressed. Davey (2008) suggests:

‘Depression is childhood is notoriously difficult to identify, and parents and teachers regularly fail to recognize its symptoms.’

(Davey, 2008:553)

Whilst it may be difficult to explain the subtleties and complexities of such an important relationship, it is nonetheless in this researcher’s opinion fundamental to the development of self-worth in teenage boys: in one-to-one discussions it has been clear that they crave a warm and loving relationship with a positive male role-model: preferably their dad: the sense of loss and rejection from some is very evident and often expressed as anger or indifference.  Hough states: ‘according to Freud, (1856-1939) almost all of the traumatic events of early life are repressed’, and if the process to unconscious mind is not fully accomplished then it leads to ‘feelings of insecurity, guilt and lack of self-worth’ (Hough, 2002:5). Clearly a common thread between these students is rejection that has led to low self-worth. On reviewing over ninety studies Layard and Dunn (2009) found that:

‘50 percent more children with separated parents have problems that those whose parents have not separated. [Which has a negative effect on] academic achievement, self-esteem, popularity with other children, behavioural difficulties, anxiety and depression.’

(Layard and Dunn, 209:22-23)

A good place to start is to understand how they became NEET in the first place unfortunately that is outside the remit of this assignment. Although not homogeneous to all schools of therapy, Freud’s ideas have permeated our society as fact and inconsequence, influenced different models of counselling therapy, even though there is no scientific basis for his concepts, he suggests that what we absorb in our early years forms the very basis of our personality or ‘psyche’.  This is known as Freud’s Structure of Personality[7], which is essentially structured by three related elements the id, ego and super-ego. Freud states: ‘…these three systems or elements have to be balanced and in harmony in order to ensure the individual’s psychological health’ (Freud in Hough, 2002:1-31). He further suggests that the ‘psychodynamics’ between these elements with the external world are continually compromised causing ‘tension and conflict’ (ibid): which for many e2e students manifests itself as low self-esteem.

All students from across college who would benefit from sessions with a counsellor are offered a referral to the in-house welfare, advice and counselling team (WAC). However, some decline and interestingly, from this researchers own personal experience, male e2e students are more likely to resist this type of support. Students who did accept and attended regularly, started to develop strategies that effected change in their behaviour: this was noticeable in their conduct/participation within the classroom. Personal tutors are not informed of the progress of those referred: disclosures are kept confidential between client and counsellor, the BACP[8] in their ethical framework for good practice state:

‘Respecting client confidentiality is a fundamental requirement for keeping trust. The professional management of confidentiality concerns the protection of personally identifiable and sensitive information from unauthorised disclosure.’

(BACP, 2009:6)

Both the e2e and WAC team work collaboratively together to ensure students’ needs are meet. Reasons for referral are detailed: students’ feel able to divulge details because of the psychological contract developed throughout the programme a bond of trust has been fostered: they feel save and secure in the knowledge that the e2e team will not judge them. The WAC team, by return, are quick to respond with timely appointments: it is recognised that e2e students often present priority cases.

The trust and security felt by students within the tutorial group could be a result of the style and approach of tutorial support given by this researcher: which has been influenced by a variety of sources. It is an approach that has in her experience worked very successfully with students in previous cohorts. The success of which is been measured by the student’s ability to achieve learning outcomes, move on and progress. In the November 2009 NEET forum for the borough of this researcher’s institute, it was stated that the national average for progression of NEETs was forty-six percent, however, in the last analysis of progression rates for e2e learners studying at this institute was above ninety percent (CIS, 2009)

Rogers’s (1902-87) humanistic approach and person-centred model of counselling has influenced tutorial support as has the Biblical teachings of Christianity: other-centeredness, unconditional love and forgiveness. In an historical overview of Rogers (1902-87) Hough states:

‘His early background was a lonely and repressive one, as his parents, who held rigid fundamentalist beliefs, did not encourage the kind of emotional atmosphere, which is conducive to childhood spontaneity and freedom of expression.’

(Hough, 2002:52)

However, the Bible instructs: ‘do not exasperate your children.’ (Ephesians 6:4 in Kingsway, 1973:2129) instead the message is to care gently for your children with thoughtfulness and love and above all put the interests of others before your own (Colossians 3:12 in Kingsway, 1973:2154-2155). Sadly, many parents with a fundamental believe, often misconstrue scripture that gives good advice. Dr James Dobson a leading Christian expert on human psychology and family life states:

“…emotional problems usually originate in one of two places (or both): either from an unloving or nourishing relationship with parents, or an inability to gain acceptance and respect from peers.”

(Dr Dobson, 1991:197)

The inquiry report by the Children’s Society, ‘A Good Childhood’, highlights the link between poverty, broken homes and poor academic achievement and depression and low self-esteem. ‘Children need above all to be loved. Unless they are loved they will not feel good about themselves, and will in turn find it difficult to love others’ (Layard and Dunn, 2009:15). The report further states that where there is a void of parental love, the result is ‘emotional narrowing’, ‘an empathy deficit’ and/or an inability to ‘empathise’, which the authors warn, will often have ‘disastrous results in adolescence and early adulthood’ (ibid:173). They advocate that the best style of parenting is one that is authoritive and warm. It is this style of approach to personal tutorial support that has been adopted by this researcher. 

Although Rogers authoritarian childhood led to him question his parents’ religious views, Christianity undoubtedly influenced his theory and methods behind person-centred counselling (Hough, 2002:51), which instinctively struck an accord with this researcher, as it ‘values human dignity in ways not seen in psychoanalysis, behavioural therapy and even cognitive therapy’ (Rennie, 1989:74).  The outworking of Rogers person-centred approach is based on three core conditions as shown in figure 2 below:







Figure 2: Roger’s three core conditions

The total weekly contact time spent with this group of students, including tutorial and lessons, is seven hours. The journey of effecting change for them started with the bespoke induction program designed by this researcher: the contents of which were either uplifting and encouraging or provocative with the intention to provoke and ‘prod’ learners in order to expose their barriers to learning. This is when the social/psychological contract starts to develop: promoting ‘liberty, equality and fraternity’ (Infed: online). Participant’s ‘responses are observed’ with feedback given to individuals in tutorials in order that they may reflect upon it and change. This type of support embraces Skinner’s (1904-90) behaviourist approach to therapy: one that is concerned with the functional analysis of behaviour and rejects the idea of the hidden aspects of Freud’s ‘psyche’ that cannot be scientifically appraised: instead the focus is on that which can be ‘shown’ and modified through the use of ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ rein-forcers: to ‘unlearn’ that which has created a barrier to learning (Curzon, 2003:72-78)

The emphasis at this stage in tutorials acknowledges Roger’s ‘core conditions’: it is for students to know that as a team of teachers, we are interested in whom they are and what they have to say: we are not interested in the labels they have acquired, for them; this is a journey they start afresh with a clean slate. The main focus being, as coined by Rogers, ‘unconditional positive regard’ (Rogers in Hough, 2002:53). For most students, the concept of being given a fresh start is not a familiar one, but it is evident that this approach fosters a readiness to develop a new mindset towards self-perception: more importantly it cultivates a community based on trust.

Thereafter, in one-to-one tutorial sessions with students, a relationship is built to explore in more depth their perceived barriers to learning and the reasons for their low self-regard. Hugh states:

‘An understanding of the self-concept is important in person-centred counselling for it relates to the individual’s perception or image of himself which is based on his life experience and the way he sees himself reflected in the attitudes expressed by this family and friends’.

(Hugh, 2002:57)

Whilst it would be more humanistic to allow each student within the tutorial group to set the pace of their own development, as their personal tutor, there is a need ensure learning outcomes expected of them are met: an educational institutes income is based upon qualifications being achieved by individual students. It is this researcher opinion that some individuals have been unable to deduce what is best for them: as they have not been in an emotional place that would favour potential for growth: such is their own negative self-perception, that each had become a self-fulfilling prophecy of the negative labelling each had experienced over many years. Critics of Rogers would also argue:

‘To what extent do we rely on the individuals’ ability to guide his own growth and development, and to what extent do we introduce outside motivation, strategies, guidance, direction, or even coercion?’

(Kirschenbaum and Henderson, 1989:xv)

There was a need to take a cognitive approach to renew these students mind-set. An ‘event’ was needed to act as a pivotal point of change. According to Dewey (1859-1052):

 ‘…every event, external or internal, calls for some kind of response. All human behaviour is the result of events and is guided by anticipation of consequences and other intervening variables. That behaviour also determines events which follow it.’

(Curzon, 2003:94)

A sense of achievement was needed for these students, something concrete and of worth: an experience that would ‘reconfigure’ their mindset and change the ‘dialogue with themselves’ from negative to positive. Mearns and Thorne state:

“A configuration is a hypothetical construct denoting a coherent pattern of feeling, thoughts and preferred behavioural responses symbolised or pre-symbolised by the person as reflective of a dimension of existence within the self.’

(Mearns and Thorne, 2000:102)

For seven students of the group, this was achieved by entering them for an online level one adult literacy exam. Ability levels for all were established in an online initial assessment and they ranged from low entry two to a mid-level three: none had gained a literacy qualification at school, but all clearly were able from observation and assessment of their ability within structured lesson. All passed and a further three then gained a Level 2. The change of self-perception was immediate for all, even to the point of walking with shoulders back and head held high.

The approach to personal tutorials by this researcher have resulted in very positive feedback: in a recent Teaching and Learning survey 75% stated that the support they received was very good with another 25% stating that it was good. In regard to the support they received in the first few weeks of starting the course 83% stated it was very good with the remaining 17% stating it was good.


A way forward

In their book: ‘Assessing personal and social development: measuring the unmeasurable,’ Inman, Buck, and Burke (1998) like Layard and Dunn (2009), tries to unravel the causes of societies problems today. Inman et al (1998) felt there was a ‘renewed concern with the rights and responsibilities associated with collective living [after the] individualism that pervaded the 1980s’. However, for Layard and Dunn (2009) ‘excessive individualism’ still exists.   Such was the ‘moral panic’ that in these past twelve years this Government has lacked the ability to inculcate values in society that would have a positive and lasting effect on the personal and social development of our next generation.

Writing for the TES[9] Kerra Maddern outlines a new Government initiative to deal with the troubled minds of today’s youth:

‘Schools are set to be turned into health centres as part of government efforts to tackle children’s psychological problems.’

(Maddern, 2010:18)

Rossiter’s (1996) review of the then widespread debate on the ‘Spritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development of pupils (SMSC)’  (Rossiter, 1996:201-214) has also resurfaced in the guise of ‘Citizenship’ to be delivered within the new cross-college tutorial syllabus. But what happens when the main agenda for tutorial provision is shaped by Government policies for socialization: the motivation to tick a box becomes a major consideration for an institute? Does the incentive and curiosity to explore and self-actualize become repressed and lost in the hubris of this Orwellian governing? Have we lost sight and meaning of the primary role of personal tutorials?

The e2e programme is soon to end, but the NEET learner will not end with it. Their needs cannot be adequately met within the current framework of tutorial provision as outlined by this researcher’s institute: a direct response to this Government’s behavioural policy for socialization. Such is the multifaceted approached needed to effect change in NEETs: to include any other agenda to tutorial provision would detract from the relational approach built on trust between personal tutor and student.

or NEET learners, tutorials should focus on addressing the barriers to learning for them: a reflective approach focusing on their commitment, participation and attitude towards learning to effect change that is sustainable and builds on their self-esteem and feelings of worth, that they may overcome life’s many obstacles with dignity and strength, and in the knowledge that they are worthy of investment, for they are the next generation.

The way forward is simple – adopt a philosophy that is positive and humanistic: full of unconditional love with a belief that all have a potential for growth and a desire to self-actualise, and that negative self-perception and behaviour can be changed by the renewing of their mindset.

Appendix A: Freud’s Structure of Personality














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[1] Government defines those young people who are aged between 16 and 19 and who are not in education employment or training as NEET.

[2] Pupil Referral Unit: a special educational provision for students who have been permanently excluded from school

[3] The e2e Passport is a statutory document: a testament of learner achievement: a contract between personal tutor, student and their Personal Connexions Advisor.

[4] SMART is an acronym for Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic and Timed, which is used teachers to help set individual goals and targets for students

[5] Further Education Development Agency

[6] Continual Professional Development

[7] See Appendix A

[8] British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy

[9] Times Educational Supplement

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